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大多数消费者会购买iPhone 8 Plus,而对iPhoneX不感兴趣。

2022-10-30 13:52:46 来源:网络 阅读:

虽然苹果发布了新的iphone8和8+,但它跳过了9版,直接发布了999美元的iphonex。这不是一个错误,而是为了纪念第一代iPhone发布10周年。iphonex作为高端顶级产品的定位可能会带来一个令人惊讶的结果:iphone8plus,起价799美元,将卖得更好。

苹果打破命名规则推出iphonex的原因之一是,这表明iphonex是iPhone的一个转折点,也是标志着第二个十年推出的产品。苹果公司给iphonex所有的炒作和最高的配置,希望它能成为iPhone跨入一个新时代的标志。该公司没有命名iphonexiphone9,以传递一个信息:iphonex是如此特殊,它不仅仅是下一代iPhone--它庆祝苹果在过去十年中所做的一切,为iPhone下一个十年的创新铺平了道路。当然,怀疑论者指出,三星的Galaxy8和S8+的无边界屏幕和OLED技术优于苹果。具有讽刺意味的是,三星是iphonex的豪华视网膜显示器的供应商,每英寸有458像素。

那么,苹果为什么要给iphonex定价999美元呢?这么高的价格可能是许多对购买iPhone感兴趣的消费者所无法企及的。这么高的价格可能会使他们转向iphone8plus。原因是著名的消费者决策偏差,被称为极端逆转。这意味着当消费者面前有三种产品,它们的定价都是高、中、低的,他们倾向于将自己的选择从低端提升到中端。消费者会觉得他们买的不是最贵的,而是省钱,这种折中产品是个不错的选择,既不贵,也不便宜。

这种情况经常出现在餐厅的酒单上。你不会点最便宜的酒,也不会点最贵的酒,但选择最贵的酒。汽车也是如此,9万美元的道奇毒蛇(DodgeViper)让28000美元的道奇充电器看起来棒极了。

他说:有些消费者会愿意花很多钱来买一个顶级的iphonex。然而,iphonex在产品线上的更大作用可能是使iphone8plus看起来更符合成本效益。与4.7英寸iphone8起价699美元相比,人们可以勉强接受5.5英寸iphone8+。与iphonex相比,这可以节省大约200美元。上面的iphonex将标题从两个中的一个改为三个中的一个,光环效应使它更便宜的兄弟iphone8plus受益。这种营销方式也在一定程度上掩盖了这样一个事实:iphone8和iphone8加起来比上一代高出50美元。

因此,苹果不需要大量销售iphonex。如果iphonex的推出将iphone8和iphone8+的比例增加到后者,苹果仍可以获得巨额利润。

苹果明显是在测试消费者的忠诚度和定价边界。有个说法认为,iPhone X、以及iPhone X高昂的价格,表明这些设备在消费者的生活中扮演了更大的角色,而不仅只是一个通讯工具。智能手机是人们生活的中心,人们对它们的要求也越来越多。显然,苹果需要维护其高端定位,并通过推高iPhone的平均售价获得可观的利润。但这个游戏也有风险,尤其是在印度和中国这样的大型新兴市场,苹果在这些市场的占有率较低,甚至还在下降。过去,苹果会推出低价产品,努力获取新兴市场消费者的青睐,例如定价599美元左右的iPhone 5C就在印度表现出色。而这次,苹果选择了相反的提价方向,这可能会让公司在亚洲市场陷入严重劣势。

在美国市场,时间会证明这款被称作新型奢侈品的iPhone X在销量上会有怎样的表现。不过如果iPhone 8 Plus才是更大的赢家,也不用感到吃惊。(财富中文网)

作者莫汉比尔·S·绍尼是凯洛格商学院(Kellogg School of Management)的教授和七本管理学著作的作者,其中包括即将出版的《有感情的企业》。

译者:严匡正

Apple’s launch of the $999 iPhone X, skipping over a version “9” by also unveiling its new iPhone 8 and 8 Plus, isn’t a miscount, but commemorates the 10 years since it launched its first iPhone. By positioning the iPhone X (pronounced as “ten”) as its superlative product with the big price tag, Apple might realize a surprising outcome: greater sales for the iPhone 8 Plus, priced at $799 and up.

One reason that Apple (aapl, -0.76%) broke with the numbering scheme with the iPhone X is to showcase it as an inflection point for the iPhone—a shape of things to come for its second decade. With all its fanfare and use of superlatives, Apple wants the iPhone X to stand out as a quantum leap into a new era for the iPhone. By not calling the iPhone X the iPhone 9, Apple is trying to convey the message that the iPhone X is too special to be just the next-generation iPhone—it celebrates all that Apple has done for 10 years, and paves the way for the next 10 years of innovation for the iPhone. Of course, skeptics point out that Samsung’s Galaxy S8 and S8+ beat Apple to the market with the “edge-to-edge” display and OLED technology. Ironically, Samsung supplies Apple with the iPhone X’s gorgeous 458 pixels-per-inch “super retina display.”

But why would Apple launch the iPhone X at $999, a super-premium price point that may put it out of reach for many aspiring iPhone customers? The high price point of the iPhone X may paradoxically bring those customers to the iPhone 8 Plus. The reason is a well-known consumer decision-making bias called “extremeness aversion.” Here’s how it works: When customers are offered three products—high-priced, mid-priced, and low-priced—they tend to gravitate upward from the low-priced to the mid-priced product. They feel that they are “saving money” by not buying the most expensive product and they are getting a good deal with the “compromise product,” which is neither extremely expensive nor too cheap.

It happens in restaurants with wine lists. You don’t order the cheapest or the most expensive bottle, but prefer to choose something in the middle. With cars, the $90,000 Dodge Viper makes the $28,000 Dodge Charger seem like a good deal.

There will be some consumers who will pay a thousand bucks for the bragging rights of owning the top-of-the-line iPhone X. However, the bigger role that the iPhone X may play in the product line is to make the iPhone 8 Plus look like a better deal. Instead of buying a 4.7-inch iPhone 8 ($699 and up), people can “settle” for a 5.5-inch iPhone 8 Plus and “save” about $200 compared to the iPhone X. By going from a two-product choice set to a three-product choice set, the super-premium iPhone X creates a halo effect that benefits its less prestigious cousin—the iPhone 8 Plus. This marketing sleight-of-hand partially obscures the fact that the iPhone 8 and the iPhone 8 Plus both cost $50 more than their predecessors did.

The upshot is that Apple doesn’t need to sell a whole lot of iPhone Xs; it can still make out like a bandit if the introduction of the iPhone X into the choice set changes the ratio of iPhone 8 vs. iPhone 8 Plus sales in favor of the iPhone 8 Plus.

Apple is clearly testing the frontiers of consumer loyalty and price premiums. One argument is that the iPhone X and its high price reflect the fact that these devices play a larger role in consumers’ lives, far more than just a means of communication. The smartphone is the center of people’s lives, and more is demanded of them. Clearly, Apple wants to protect its premium positioning and make hefty profits by driving up the average selling price of the iPhone. However, this is a risky game to play, especially in large emerging markets like India and China, where Apple’s market share is low and shrinking. In the past, Apple has made an effort to court emerging market customers by launching lower-priced products like the iPhone 5C, priced around $599, which has done well in India. This time, Apple has chosen to go in the opposite direction by moving up in price, a move that might put it at a serious disadvantage in Asian markets.

In the U.S. market, time will tell how well the iPhone X, touted as the new luxury product, will do in terms of sales. But don’t be surprised if the big winner is the iPhone 8 Plus.

Mohanbir S. Sawhney is a professor at Kellogg School of Management and the author of seven books on management, including the forthcoming book, The Sentient Enterprise.